D. Maria, F. Hamdani, J. Pratomo, M. A. Pratama, G. S. A Bidari, S. Sherida


Monitoring is a critical process in managing the land use plan. However, the current approach to collecting data related to the land use has a shortcoming. First, field survey has limitation due to the high number of resources needed, i.e., people, funds, time. Second, the participatory approach has limitation due to the lack of involvement of the citizens. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has developed in recent years and it has been used in the various field, i.e., urban dynamics, asset monitoring, and so on. The usage of UAV to monitor urban changes has some advantages. First, it can cover a large area and used fewer resources compared with the field survey, in term of man hour, funds and time. Second, it may provide data with a high spatial resolution, which gives a broad possibility for analyzing urban features. This research aimed to assess the usefulness of UAV in monitoring the spatial plan of Bogor Regency, Indonesia. We developed indicator according to the legal and user perspective. Our research has shown that UAV may reduce the time and resources needed to monitor the spatial plan. However, the UAV has limitation since it is difficult to indicate the changes of the land use. Therefore, we suggest incorporating with the field survey


Monitoring is a critical process in managing the spatial plan to ensure the compliance of the implementation process (Government of The Republic of Indonesia, 2007). In Indonesia, the monitoring process is divided into two categories, i.e., technical and specific monitoring (Government of The Republic of Indonesia, 2010). Technical monitoring consists of procedures, output, functions and benefits, and monitoring the achievement of standards of minimum service. Meanwhile, the specific monitoring includes data and information and technical study on specific problems.

Although monitoring process is crucial, current approach for data collection regarding spatial planning has limitations. First, field survey has limitation due to the high number of resources needed, i.e., people, funds, time. Second, the participatory approach has limitation due to the lack of involvement of the citizens. Another method, which is satellite based imagery also has limitation due to the impact of atmospheric conditions.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has developed in recent years and it has been used in the various field, i.e., urban dynamics and asset monitoring. According to Kršák et al. (2016) UAV can be used to create new opportunities for documentation since it can measure the surface in detail, create orthophoto maps of the entire area and documents the difficult areas. Furthermore, the usage of UAV may cover a large area and used fewer resources compared with the field survey, in term of man hour, funds and time. UAV also may provide data with a high spatial resolution, which gives a broad possibility for various applications. Several studies have demonstrated the usage of UAV in an urban area. For instance, research from Salvo et al. (2014)has shown the usage of UAV for urban traffic analysis. Another research from Chen et al.(2016)developed a robust method for detecting building change from UAV image.

As the buffer city of Jakarta, Bogor Regency experienced a rapid urbanization, which led to an increased demand for land. Three factors have contributed to the land demands, i.e., population growth, structural change of the society and the economic developments (Fajarini, 2014). The impact of the rapid urbanization results in various forms of environmental degradation and the probability of violation in the spatial plan. Therefore, the local government is required to monitor the spatial plan regularly to prevent violations.

However, to monitor the implementation of spatial planning also have an issue. According to the Indonesian National Law Number 26/2007, the General Spatial Plan (RTRW) cannot be used for monitoring due to the lack detailed information (Purba, 2015). However, local governments rarely have the detailed spatial plan (RDTR), which may be used for monitoring the spatial plan. Often, they develop their procedure for this purpose. Therefore, it is necessary to indicate the requirement for monitoring from the legal and the user perspective.

Currently, the government of Bogor Regency used field survey for data acquisition. Although the size of Bogor Regency is large, which is 2.664 square kilometer, the number of people-in-charge for monitoring process is limited. The Government of Bogor Regency itself has set the target for monitoring land use for more than 1,000 land parcels per year. However, they can accommodate only 200 cases per year. This research aimed to assess the usefulness of UAV in monitoring the spatial plan of Bogor Regency, Indonesia according to the legal and user perspective.


To evaluate the usefulness of UAV in monitoring the spatial plan, we developed a set of indicators from the two sources. First, we conducted a literature review related to the legal requirement for monitoring the spatial plan. Second, we conducted an interview, to understand the needs and requirement of the user. According to these two sources, we developed a set of indicators. The qualitative evaluation was done by comparing the requirement of the monitoring process by the UAV’s feature. To elaborate the capability of UAV to fulfil the requirement, we conducted a literature review. By the end, we came out with a matrix that indicates the usefulness of the UAV for monitoring the spatial plan, particularly in Bogor Regency. The methods used in this research can be seen in figure 1.

Figure 1 – Research Methods


Legal and Requirement

Two components are needed to be considered in monitoring the spatial plan, which is structure and pattern (Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing, 2015). Regarding monitoring the structure, some information needs to be collected. First, the change of urban center. Second, the change of the main infrastructure. Last, the change of utility. Meanwhile, monitoring pattern consists of three measurements. First, changes in the environmental protected area. Second, changes of open green space. Third, changes in the built-up area.

Acquisition of the data mentioned above is needed to indicate and prevent the violation of spatial plan. Several patterns can be classified as a violation of the spatial plan. First, conversion of the land use. Second, permit does not comply with the spatial plan. Third, a spatial plan does not matches with the actual conditions. Fourth, development without a license. Fifth, inaccuracy of data. Sixth, administrative violations during the licensing process. The last is construction of particular parcels affecting the accessibility of public facilities.

User Requirement

The monitoring process of the spatial plan in Bogor Regency is carried out by the Department of Spatial Planning and Land Management (DTRP). DTRP developed a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) regarding the monitoring of the spatial plan. To conduct the monitoring process, DTRP also needs to cooperate with other working units, e.g. Board of Investment and Integrated Permit (BPTSP) and Civil Service Police (Satpol PP). DTRP Bogor serves as the first substation in monitoring activities as the issuance of the construction permit. Further intensive of monitoring activities are escorted by a unit of the Department of Building Management and Housing (DTBP) to minimise the infringement.

Regarding the procedure, DTRP started by conducting a field survey for every permitted that submitted to BPTSP. If violations are found, DTRP will issue a warning letter. If the offender does not settle the issue after the third warning, then the government has any right to dismantle or revoke the landowner permits. However, due to the limited resources, DTRP needs to create a priority, which developed according to the preliminary information obtained from district authorities, also information from the citizens. Regarding the time that consumed is depends on the area and the parcels that surveyed. For the parcels sized one hectare in the industrial area, it can be done by one day. Meanwhile, for the parcels in a densely populated residential, it required up to four days.

Development of Indicators

As discussed in introductions, we developed a set of indicators according to the legal and user perspective. From the legal point of view, we noticed that three activities need to monitors, which are monitoring urban structure, urban patterns and avoiding violations. Meanwhile, from the user perspective, we noticed that the user requires methods that may reduce the resources needed and increasing the collaboration among stakeholders. Therefore, we can summarise the indicators that can be used for evaluations, which can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1. Indicators of Evaluations


Regarding change monitoring of urban center, it requires data that periodically collected. The change of urban center might be observed by the change of the built-up area. For this requirement, the usage of UAV has an advantage due to its ability to be deployed in the particular area and various time. Several studies have shown the usefulness of UAV to acquire spatiotemporal data. For instance, Kim et al. (2016) employed multitemporal SAR data obtained from UAV for detecting durable and permanent changes in urban areas. Another study from Rosnell et al.(2011) tested the performance of image acquired from UAV in different seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn) and conditions (sunny, cloudy, various solar elevations).

For the second and third indicator, which are infrastructure and utilities, the usage of UAV has advantages due to the high spatial resolutions. Current UAV camera may produce an image with 6 centimetres on the spatial resolution. The usage of very high resolution (VHR) may assist the detection of the small object. Regarding the application of UAV for monitoring infrastructure and utility has demonstrated in some research. For instance, Salvo et al. (2014)used the UAV for monitoring the traffic. Another research from Sankarasrinivasan et al. (2015)used the UAV to monitor the condition of the building structure.

Similar with the advantage of the UAV in monitoring urban center, infrastructure and utility, monitoring urban pattern also require methods that may acquire multi-temporal data with appropriate spatial resolutions. However, apart from these two requirements, monitoring urban pattern also needs a platform that can cover a large area. Current development of the UAV technology has created a platform with outstanding coverage and endurance, e.g., Orion Medium-Altitude Long Endurance UAV (Figure 2) have a flight radius of 4,000 miles and can fly for 120 hours.

Figure 2. Orion UAV

Although the usage of UAV has demonstrated its usefulness in the first to the sixth indicator, apparently it has a limitation in monitoring land use conversion. Similar to different image acquisition methods, i.e., satellite imagery, not every land use class can easily detect from the image. For instance, office and the commercial area often have similar characteristics. Also, it is hard to distinguish between the public park and the vacant land. Hence, observing the land use from the ground is the most obvious approach. Although, some land use may be observed from the image, e.g., rice field and water body.

Since it is hard to monitor the land use from the UAV, it is also difficult to monitor the difference between a permit and spatial plan (indicator number eight) as well as the difference between spatial plan and actual conditions (indicator number nine). UAV also have limited use to solve the problems related to the accuracy of the land use data (indicator number 11). However, the UAV might be used to monitor development without a permit(indicator number ten), by comparing acquired image with the GIS data of building permit. We will indicate the violation if we find any changes in the particular area that do not have a building permit.

UAV have a limited use for detecting construction site that blocked access to public space. In this case, we need to define the relationship between construction sites, public facilities and the access to the public facilities. Furthermore, often the access itself is hard to define from the image. For instance, a vacant land has used as access to a public park. Hence, this case only can be detected by the local knowledge. Regarding the administrative process, UAV is of course not possible to detect this violations.

Regarding the user perception, the UAV is useful in term of reducing the time and manpower needed for data collections. Therefore, it can impact on the availability of up-to-date data that also can be used to increase the collaboration among stakeholders.

According to the above discussion, we summaries the usefulness of the UAV in Table 2.

Table 2. Summary of Evaluations


Our research has demonstrated the usage of UAV for monitoring the spatial plan. The combination of the legal and user perspective also gives a better understanding for assessing the usage of the UAV. However, UAV also has a limited usage in monitoring land use, which also similar with different image acquisition methods, i.e., satellite imagery. Since only particular land use that can be detected, incorporating with the field data is needed. In term of user perspective, UAV gives a better opportunity compared with the field survey in term of reducing the time and manpower needed.


Funding for this research is obtained from Lokalaras Indonesia Institute. We also grateful by the support from the Government of Bogor Regency.


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Alam Sutera and Their Spatial Planning Principles

By Annabel Noor Asyah

Who doesn’t know about Alam Sutera? One of the most popular new townships which located near Jakarta, Indonesia. Alam Sutera is known as an integrated property developer which focusing on the development of residential areas, commercial districts as well as the management of industrial areas. This new township built in 1994 on a 800 hectares piece of land. It was an integrated area that located in Serpong, Tangerang. After more than 20 years become the part of property sector in Indonesia, now Alam Sutera had launched 37 residential clusters and 2 apartments building in the township. Each cluster consists of 150-300 houses that is supported with a range of premium facilities such as education, entertainment, healthcare centers as well as one stop shopping area. As time passed by, now Alam Sutera has been evolving their business by developing Suverna Sutera, another township project which has been hold the development permit of 2.600 hectares of land in Pasar Kemis, Tangerang.

To most people, developers’ way of work always being correlated to a greedy business development process. Developers always intended to aim the highest profit by selling endless property units. Even sometimes, developer is not paying attention to current spatial planning regulation that applicable in the development area just to get their financial capital back as soon as possible. The carelessness of spatial planning resulted in many damage such as the degradation of land quality, the decreasing of environmental and social aspects, etc. How about Alam Sutera? Does this stereotype apply to their the business process?  

It is well-known that there are so many aspects that have to be considered when planning a new township such as environmental, social, and also economic aspect. The representation of Alam Sutera, Mr. Soelaeman, in one opportunity talked about how Alam Sutera development aiming to achieve environmental sustainability by implement ecological planning in their business development. The developer was trying to combine many aspects to their development such as design, environmental, and social to their long term plan.

In implementing their development projects, Alam Sutera had their own design principles which are Focus Inward, Create Special Gateway, Town Center in the Heart, Residential Areas Surround the Center, and Direct Traffic to the Perimeter. Those design principles were made to reinforce the structure and identity of the community with extensive landscaping on major streets and open spaces and create an unifying urban design treatment in the Town Center.

Illustration of Alam Sutera Design Principles
Source: Alam Sutera

Based on those principles, Alam Sutera have a masterplan that has to be reviewed every 5 to 10 years in order to improve the quality of Alam Sutera.  Masterplan reviews also intended as a reaction to internal and external changes towards a better future of Alam Sutera.

Design concept of Alam Sutera is garden city which accentuate the park and open spaces with an easy structure to access every parts of the area. A good development is indicated by how the area is well understood by public. Alam Sutera uses recreational facilities, parks, and open space landscapes to communicate their development goals to the public. Alam Sutera mostly placed their recreational facilities, parks and open space on the heart of their development areas. They also had their own road planning principles which are hierarchy road system; loop system and minimizing crossing activity; avoid ribon development and consider about the road’s capacity.   The implementation of their road planning principles can be seen on this picture :

Illustration of Alam Sutera’s Road Planning
Source: Alam Sutera

Alam Sutera concerns about the environmental sustainability as well. As stated on the company website, Alam Sutera has become the pioneer in green living and dynamic icon of urban development and has been committed to build a better life for the community. It sounds like a promotional template for public relation officer in any other property developers. But according to Mr. Soelaeman, in the beginning stage of Alam Sutera development, they started with the vision about how to preserve the land carrying capacity in Serpong. The reason behind that mission was the fact that Serpong area was prone to flood.

The real action that took by Alam Sutera was the development of green tunnel, which consists of thousand trembesi trees that contribute to produce fresh air and give such an aesthetic view to the township. Trembesi trees have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide and land water. The presence of large trees is also an alternative to filter the penetration of the sunlight, so it doesn’t directly hit the earth surface. The heat that released by the earth will also be absorbed first by the tree canopy before being released back into the atmosphere. Thus, the ambient temperature can be maintained. The presentation of green area in Alam Sutera is 40% from the total area. That number of fact shows the real commitment of Alam Sutera to create a health living environment by implementing ecological planning concept. This green tunnel became very  iconic to Alam Sutera.

Green Tunnel of Alam Sutera
 Source: @AlamSuteraInfo

Another story about the development of Alam Sutera new township is about how they relocate the local people who initially lived there. Sometimes, developer have to displace a group of people who encroach their land with a minimum compensation. And later after that, the local people will do the protest and demand a high compensation for their displaced houses. Does it also happen to Alam Sutera? According to the explanation of Mr. Soelaeman, in the beginning of the development, Alam Sutera have excellently managed to relocate a group of local people who initially lived on their land that has been plotted to be the residential area. There was no other options for Alam Sutera except to relocate and compensate them. Alam Sutera provide the local people a piece of land which located near the Alam Sutera development site. Moreover, Alam Sutera also provide them with basic facilities to ensure that they live in harmony. Some of the relocated people also had the opportunity to work with Alam Sutera.  

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that Alam Sutera development process is not only aiming to get the highest profit, but also paying attention to the environmental sustainability through their design concept. Alam Sutera as one of the biggest developer in Indonesia also considering the livelihood of local people who affected by the development. Those actions should be considered as they way of how Alam Sutera implementing the spatial planning regulation.


Alam Sutera. 2019. “Planning Principle: Ecological Planning for Environmental Sustainability”. Alam Sutera

Gumelar, Ofi Sofyan. 2017. “Blusukan Seru di Alam Sutera”.

Siahaan, Surtan. 2018. “Alam Sutera, Nyamannya Hidup di Kawasan Hijau”.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Regulation in Indonesia

Oleh : Giri Bayu Aji

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are unmanned aircraft that have the ability to take high-quality images or photographs. UAVs can be used in mapping purposes that can support data acquisition in 2D and 3D models. Utilization of UAVs in terms of surveys and mapping is adopted to conduct observations on a broad scale, with easier data collection process and lower cost. The use of the UAV is considered as an improvement because it has the ability to produce aerial photography with the best quality.

The development of UAVs in the current era shifts High Resolution Satellite Image (CSRT) which has the highest resolution of 15 x 15cm. UAV data acquisition can defeat the resolution produced by CSRT with RGB values reaching 1cm. Another advantage of UAV data is its’ ability to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data. This can facilitate reflective elevation from the sea level to trees, buildings, altitude objects, and others at ‘Bare Earth’. In addition, UAVs also have the advantage of presenting 3D data while the CSRT can only display data in 2D [1].

UAV is widely used in Indonesia because of its superiority, especially in the field of surveying and mapping. The use of UAVs in Indonesia is regulated by the Ministry of Transportation as stipulated in the Minister of Transportation Regulation Number 90 of 2015 concerning controlling the operation of unmanned aircraft. The Ministerial Regulation was issued to improve flight safety related to the operation of UAVs in the Indonesian airway. These regulations govern flight zones, flight height, and flight plans. The licensing agency besides the Ministry of Transportation is AirNav which is under the auspices of the TNI-Air Force. AirNav as an airway control institution in Indonesia, in determining its policies adopts regulations from the Ministry of Transportation and has not included regulations from Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR). The applicable regulations have not regulated thoroughly about the use, classification and sanctions of using UAVs.

 This is deemed necessary because it considers the safety and security of UAV users by air transportation in Indonesia. In the CASR regulation the emphasis is on the use, classification and sanctions for UAV users who are expected to prevent accidents because they are based on the principles of flight safety and security. From the results of a literature study that has been carried out in practice the use of UAVs in Indonesia only adheres to the Ministry Regulation part 90 of 2015. The regulation is still considered weak because the widespread use of UAVs in Indonesia will grow rapidly. In Table 1 you can see a comparison between Ministerial Regulation No. 90 of 2015 with Civil Aviation Safety Regulation (CASR) series 107.

Comparison CASR 107 and Indonesia Ministrial Regulation

Ministerial Regulation Part 90 of  2015 generally only discusses operating rules from UAVs, however the ministerial regulation can adapt from CASR 107 in anticipating the development of UAV technology utilization in Indonesia. By compiling more complex regulations such as details about operating rules, operator cerification, unmaned aircraft registration. Reported by the media The Ministry of Transportation targets regulations related to unmanned aircraft to be compiled, completed and valid in 2019 which discuss the shortcomings that exist in the previous regulations [4]. In the near future, the development of drone will expand to the process of shipping goods / cargo, commercial, defense and security. Each of these aspects should have different rules so that UAV users have specific flight guidance in their respective fields.

Source :


[1]. Denny Antony.2017. Ketentuan Hukum Dalam Penggunaan Drone Di Indonesia. Jakarta: Academia penerbitan.

[2] Pemerintah Indonesia. 2017. Undang-Undang No. 90 Tahun 2015 tentang Pengendalian Pengoperasian Pesawat Udara. Lembaran Negara RI Tahun 2017, No. 60. Sekretariat Negara. Jakarta.

[3] Tjiang, H. 2018. Menerbangkan drone dengan Aman. Diunduh dari Pada 24 Juli 2019

[4] Nursalikah, A. 2019. Kemenhub Targetkan Aturan Drone Berlaku Tahun Ini. Republika, 18 Juli 2019.


The Impacts of Self-Help Housing Implementation to Households Livelihood Assets

Annabel Noor Asyah S.T., M.Sc.

Generally house known as a shelter, place that provide protection from danger and weather. However, the meaning of housing is actually more than that. It is not only about a place with specific structures but also about the activities that the households do to live and improve their life that related to the livelihoods concept. There are several housing theories and concepts that make us have better understanding about what actually housing is and alternative housing provision scheme that perceived effective especially for people who live in urban poverty. One of them is self-help concept, a popular idea about housing by John F.C Turner, an English Architect who had experiences in housing development in Latin America. In this essay the argument about the connection between self-help theory with livelihood theory will be developed.

Like a chapter of his book, Turner introduced the idea about “housing as a verb” which described housing as a process that human life depends on, not only as a product. Such activities like nurturing the children, taking care of ourselves, and preparing the foods are processes that essential to households life. According to Turner, based on the strong engagement between housing and households activities, decision making power about housing have to be decided by the house users themselves because they know better about what they need or users as the principal actors. The main idea of self-help is the house users have the freedom to build, to use and manage the house by their own way (Turner, 1972). The characteristics of self-help concept are: It is a house-users design and management process; Emphasizes the crucial term of “who-decides” which leads to autonomy concept with the house-users as the decision makers (Harris,2003); Limits the government intervention (Jenkins, 2007). Although the house-users have bigger portion of role to provide houses, they still need government support to provide things that they can not provide alone, such as basic infrastructures like the road and sewage. Government also have to make laws about limitation of what people can do also have to provide and protect access to element of housing process such as land, materials, tools etc. (Nientied, 1988).  

To have a better understanding about the role of housing, we also need to pay attention to the livelihoods theory. Livelihoods known as combination of activities, assets, and capabilities of the households to assure that they can survive, maintain and improve their welfare (Rakodi, 2002). One of the main factors that influences the livelihood is asset. There several kind of assets such as physical, natural, human, social and financial asset. All of them are influencing each other and affect the ability of household to managing their living. Physical asset identified as the availability of basic infrastructures such as housing, tools to access water etc which important for people to make their living. Housing that categorized as physical assets play an important role that influencing other assets such as human and financial assets.

Human asset which known as the availability of labour resources within households divided into quantitative and qualitative dimensions. Quantitative dimension is more about the number of people. Meanwhile qualitative is about the education levels, skills, and health status of each person in a household (Rakodi, 2002). Housing influences the human asset in a significant way. For example in the case of forced eviction in Abuja, Nigeria, people who affected the forced eviction gave their testimonials and expressed their feeling after the forced eviction happened. They lost their houses as the asset. They feel shocked and depressed because they did not have house anymore and have to live in the street. One of the interviewees known have to sleep in the street for days, and got sick physically and mentally. And after several days tried to survive, he died. That is a concrete example about how house as physical asset influences human asset which is household’s health both physically and mentally.

Financial asset identified as resources related to the availability of money which make the households have financial options such as credit, pensions, savings, and remittances (Rakodi, 2002). Financial asset also influenced by the physical asset. For example for people who work in home or home-based workers. According to Chen & Sinha (2016, p. 346), “For home-based workers, whose home is also their workplace, housing is an essential productive asset”. For example in case of Ahmedabad, Pakistan, where a group of waste plastic recyclers who work at home have to be relocated to a new site because their existing place should be functioning as floodplain to control flooding in the future. They would lost their work which resulted on the inability to pay the bills and have to reducing the expenditures. One group that had been relocated to the new site said that even the government gave them a new house, they still can not find a new job and it was hard for them to survive in the new site. They start to borrowing money from each other. That case shows the real example about how house become a place for generating income which related to financial asset.

After all, self-help approach and livelihood theory are linked in a complementary way. The application of self-help enriches the livelihood assets for the people. By designing and managing their houses, the users will have skills like the ability to design, construct, build and manage their own house based on their own needs that related to their human asset. They also know their needs about the size, the number of rooms so their house will be efficient for them to live. This condition might not be found if people just directly buy the houses from public or private company. Related to the financial asset, people will build their houses based on their own financial condition. They will have the opportunity to manage their own money to build without sacrificing their other needs. Usually people will have tendency to build the house near the workplace, so the self-help approach will help them increase their income. To the social asset, self-help approach also will give the beneficial influences such as, the sense of belonging to the community surrounding the house because they build it by themselves and often get help from the neighbours. People also have tendency to build their house near their relatives, so it will strengthen the relations due to the proximity to each other. Related to nature asset, people who use the self-help approach have the opportunity to build their house near the natural resources so they can improve their life with easy access to natural resources such as water and land. This natural resources also can help people bettering their financial asset by using them as opportunity to work.

The explanation about conectivity between self-help housing concept and livelihood assets is a picture about how housing system works in Indonesia today. According to Johan Silas in his book “Perumahan Dalam Jejak Paradoks” (2016), housing system in Indonesia preceived as a plane that devided into 2 classes, business and economy class.  70% of the plane passengers are from economy class, yet they are the ones who make the plane operated, not the rest 30%. This analogy is perfectly describes the housing system in Indonesia where almost 70% of houses in Indonesia are informal, and the rest 30% are provided by formal system. This shows how self-help housing is the first option for Indonesian to build their houses. People who can not afford housing from formal sector, eventually would build their own houses by adjusting their assets such financial asset,  physical asset, natural asset, human asset and social asset.

In conclusion, self-help approach which is limiting government intervention and let the house-user build and manage their own houses is complementarily linked to the livelihood theory which highlight the 5 kind of assets. Self-help approach strengthen people’s asset and give them opportunity to manage their life based on what they need. However, some kind of  the government’s roles should be considered such as provide basic services and giving land protection to support what the people can not provide by themselves.


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